City Guide İstanbul - İngilizce Tanıtım
İngilizce İstanbul un özellikleri
Area: 5.712 km²
Population: 10.018.735 (2000)
Traffic Code: 34
The god and human, nature and art are together in there, they have created such a perfect place that it is valuable to see." Lamartines famous poetic line reveals his love for İstanbul, describing the embracing of two continents, with one arm reaching out to Asia and the other to Europe.
İstanbul, once known as the capital of capital cities, has many unique features. It is the only city in the world to straddle two continents, and the only one to have been a capital during two consecutive empires - Christian and Islamic. Once was capital of the Ottoman Empire, İstanbul still remains the commercial, historical and cultural pulse of Turkey, and its beauty lies in its ability to embrace its contradictions. Ancient and modern, religious and secular, Asia and Europe, mystical and earthly all co-exist here.
Its variety is one of İstanbuls greatest attractions: The ancient mosques, palaces, museums and bazaars reflect its diverse history. The thriving shopping area of Taksim buzzes with life and entertainment. And the serene beauty of the İstanbul strait, Princes Islands and parks bring a touch of peace to the otherwise chaotic metropolis.
Adalar, Avcılar, Bağcılar, Bahçelievler, Bakırköy, Beşiktaş, Bayrampaşa, Beykoz, Beyoğlu, Eminönü, Eyüb, Fatih, Gaziosmanpaşa, Kadıköy, Kâğıthane, Kartal, Küçükçekmece, Pendik, Sarıyer, Şişli, Ümraniye, Üsküdar, Zeytinburnu, Büyükçekmece, Çatalca, Silivri, Şile, Esenler, Güngören, Maltepe, Sultanbeyli, and Tuzla.
The İstanbul strait
Golden Horn: This horn-shaped estuary divides European İstanbul. One of the best natural harbours in the world, it was once the centre for the Byzantine and Ottoman navies and commercial shipping interests. Today, attractive parks and promenades line the shores, a picturesque scene especially as the sun goes down over the water. At Fener and Balat, neighbourhoods midway up the Golden Horn, there are entire streets filled with old wooden houses, churches, and synagogues dating from Byzantine and Ottoman times. The Orthodox Patriarchy resides at Fener and a little further up the Golden Horn at Eyup, are some wonderful examples of Ottoman architecture. Muslim pilgrims from all over the world visit Eyup Mosgue and Tomb of Eyup, the Prophet Mohammeds standard bearer, and it is one of the holiest places in Islam. The area is a still a popular burial place, and the hills above the mosque are dotted with modern gravestones interspersed with ornate Ottoman stones. The Pierre Loti Cafe, at the top of hill overlooking the shrine and the Golden Horn, is a wonderful place to enjoy the tranquility of the view.
Beyoğlu and Taksim: Beyoğlu is an interesting example of a district with European-influenced architecture, from a century before. Europes second oldest subway, Tunel was built by the French in 1875, must be also one of the shortest offering a one-stop ride to start of Taksim. Near to Tunel is the Galata district, whose Galata Tower became a famous symbols of İstanbul, and the top of which offers a tremendous 180 degree view of the city.
From the Tunel area to Taksim square, is one of the citys focal points for shopping, entertainment and urban promenading: İstiklal Caddesi is a fine example of the contrasts and compositions of İstanbul; fashion shops, bookshops, cinemas, markets, restaurants and even hand-carts selling trinkets and simit (sesame bread snack) ensure that the street is packed throughout the day until late into the night. The old tramcars re-entered into service, which shuttle up and down this fascinating street, and otherwise the street is entirely pedestrianised. There are old embassy buildings, Galatasaray High School, the colourful ambience of Balık Pazarı (Fish Bazaar) and restaurants in Çiçek Pasaji (Flower Passage). Also on this street is the oldest church in the area, St Marys Draperis dating back to 1789, and the Franciscan Church of St Antoine, demolished and then rebuilt in 1913.
The street ends at Taksim Square, a big open plaza, the hub of modern İstanbul and always crowded, crowned with an imposing monument celebrating Ataturk and the War of Independence. The main terminal of the new subway is under the square, adjacent is a noisy bus terminal, and at the north end is the Ataturk Cultural Centre, one of the venues of the İstanbul Theatre Festival. Several five-star hotels are dotted around this area, like the Hyatt, Intercontinental and Hilton (the oldest of its kind in the city). North of the square is the İstanbul Military Museum.
Taksim and Beyoğlu have for centuries been the centre of nightlife, and now there are many lovely bars and clubs off Istiklal Cadesi, including some of the only gay venues in the city. Beyoğlu is also at the centre of the more bohemian arts scene.
Sultanahmet: Many places of tourist interest are concentrated in Sultanahmet, in heart of the Imperial Centre of the Ottoman Empire. The most important places in this area, all of which are described in detail in the Places of Interest section, are Topkapı Palace, Aya Sofya, Sultanahmet Mosgue (the Blue Mosque), the Hippodrome, Kapalı Carşı (Covered Market), Yerebatan Sarnıcı and the Museum of Islamic Art.
In addition to this wonderful selection of historical and architectural sites, Sultanahmet also has a large concentration of carpet and souvenir shops, hotels and guesthouses, cafes, bars and restaurants, and travel agents.
Ortaköy: Ortakoy was a resort for the Ottoman rulers because of its attractive location on the İstanbul strait, and is still a popular spot for residents and visitors. The village is within a triangle of a mosque, church and synagogue, and is near çirağan Palace, Kabataş High School, Feriye, Princess Hotel.
The name Ortaköy reflects the university students and teachers who would gather to drink tea and discuss life, when it was just a small fishing village. These days, however, that scene has developed into a suburb with an increasing amount of expensive restaurants, bars, shops and a huge market. The fishing, however, lives on and the area is popular with local anglers, and there is now a huge waterfront tea-house which is crammed at weekends and holidays.
Sarıyer: The first sight of Sarıyer is where the İstanbul strait connects with the Black Sea, after the bend in the river after Tarabya. Around this area, old summer houses, embassies and fish restaurants line the river, and a narrow road which separates it from Büyükdere, continues along to the beaches of Kilyos.
Sarıyer and Rumeli Kavağı are the final wharfs along the European side visited by the İstanbul strait boat trips. Both these districts, famous for their fish restaurants along with Anadolu Kavagı, get very crowded at weekends and holidays with İstanbul residents escaping the city.
After these points, the İstanbul strait is lined with tree-covered cliffs and little habitation. The Sadberk Hanım Museum, just before Sariyer, is an interesting place to visit; a collection of archaeological and ethnographic items, housed in two wooden houses. A few kilometres away is the huge Belgrade Forest, once a haunting ground of the Ottomans, and now a popular weekend retreat into the largest forest area in the city.
Üsküdar: Relatively unknown to tourists, the suburb of Üsküdar, on the Asian side of the İstanbul strait, is one of the most attractive suburbs. Religiously conservative in its background, it has a tranquil atmosphere and some fine examples of imperial and domestic architecture.
The iskele, or Mihrimah Mosgue is opposite the main ferry pier, on a high platform with a big covered porch in front, often occupied by older local men watching life around them. Opposite this is Yeni Valide Mosgue, built in 1710, and the Valide Sultans green tomb rather like a giant birdcage. The Çinili Mosque takes its name from the beautiful tiles which decorate the interior, and was built in 1640.