The Infinitive konu anlatımı
to-infinitive is used:
· after certain verbs. e.g. want, wish, agree, fail, mean, decide, learn
· after the auxiliaries to be to, to have to, and ought to
· in the pattern 'it is + adjective + to-infinitive'
· The elephant decided to marry the mouse
· The mouse agreed to marry the elephant
· You will have to ask her
· You are to leave immediately
· He ought to relax
· She has to go to Berlin next week
· It's easy to speak English
· It is hard to change jobs after twenty years
· It's stupid to believe everything you hear
· I would rather visit Rome.
· She would rather live in Italy.
· Would you rather eat steak or fish?
· He would rather work in a bank.
· I'd rather be a forest than a tree.
The zero infinitive is used:
1. after most auxiliaries (e.g. must, can, should, may, might)
2. after verbs of perception, (e.g. see, hear, feel) with the pattern verb + object + zero infinitive
3. after the verbs 'make' and 'let', with the pattern make/let + object + zero infinitive
4. after the expression 'had better'
5. after the expression 'would rather' when referring to the speaker's own actions
· She can't speak to you.
· He should give her some money.
· Shall I talk to him?
· Would you like a cup of coffee?
· I might stay another night in the hotel.
· They must leave before 10.00 a.m.
To form the negative infinitive, place not before the to-or zero infinitive:
e.g. not to worry:
It's hard not to worry about exams.
· I decided not to go to London.
· He asked me not to be late.
· Elephants ought not to marry mice.
· You'd better not smile at the crocodile.
· I'd rather not eat meat.
INFINITIVE AFTER QUESTION WORDS
These verbs: ask, decide, explain, forget, know, show, tell, understand,can be followed by a question word such as where, how, what, who, whenor 'whether' + the 'to-infinitive'.
· She asked me how to use the washing machine.
· Do you understand what to do?
· Tell me when to press the button.
· I've forgotten where to put this little screw.
· I can't decide whether to wear the red dress or the black one.
The question word Why is followed by the zero infinitive in suggestions:
· Why wait until tomorrow?
· Why not ask him now?
· Why walk when we can go in the car?
· Why not buy a new bed for your bedroom?
· Why leave before the end of the game?
· Why not spend a week in Beirut and a week in Baghdad
The most common uses of the infinitive are:
To indicate the purpose or intention of an action (where the 'to' has the same meaning as 'in order to' or 'so as to'):
· She's gone to collect her pay cheque.
· The three bears went into the forest to find firewood.
As the subject of the sentence:
· To be or not to be, that is the question.
· To know her is to love her.
(Note: this is more common in written English than spoken)
With nouns or pronouns, to indicate what something can be used for, or what is to be done with it:
· Would you like something to drink?
· I haven't anything to wear.
· The children need a garden to play in.
After adjectives in these patterns:
· It is + adjective +to-infinitiveIt is good to talk
· It is + adjective + infinitive + for someone + to-infinitive.It is hard for elephants to see mice
· It is + adjective + infintive + of someone + to-infinitive.It is unkind of her to say that.
After an adjective + noun when a comment or judgement is being made:
· It was a stupid place to park the car.
· This is the right thing to do.
· It was an astonishing way to behave.
With too and enough in these patterns:
too much/many (+ noun) + to-infinitive
· There's too much sugar to put in this bowl.
· I had too many books to carry.
too + adjective + to-infinitive
· This soup is too hot to eat.
· She was too tired to work.
too + adverb + to-infinitive
· He arrived too late to see the actors.
enough (+ noun) + to-infinitive
· I've had enough (food) to eat.
adjective + enough + to-infinitive
· She's old enough to make up her own mind.
not enough (+noun) + to-infinitive
· There isn't enough snow to ski on.
not + adjective + enough + to-infinitive
· You're not old enough to have grand-children!THE INFINITIVE OTHER FORMS
The infinitive can have the following forms:
· The perfect infinitive
· The continuous infinitive
· The perfect continuous infinitive
· The passive infinitive
NOTE: as with the present infinitive, there are situations where the to is omitted, e.g. after most modal auxiliaries.
The perfect infinitive:[/c]to have + past participle, e.g. to have broken, to have seen, to have saved.
This form is most commonly found in Type 3 conditional sentences, using the conditional perfect, e.g. If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake.
· Someone must have broken the window and climbed in.
· I would like to have seen the Taj Mahal when I was in India.
· He pretended to have seen the film.
· If I'd seen the ball I would have caught it.The continuous infinitive:to be + present participle, e.g.to be swimming, to be joking, to be waiting
· I'd really like to be swimming in a nice cool pool right now.
· You must be joking!
· I happened to be waiting for the bus when the accident happened.The perfect continuous infinitive:to have been + present participle
· to have been crying
· to have been waiting
· to have been painting
· The woman seemed to have been crying.
· You must have been waiting for hours!
· He pretended to have been painting all day.The passive infinitive:to be + past participle, e.g. to be given, to be shut, to be opened
· I am expecting to be given a pay-rise next month.
· These doors should be shut.
· This window ought to be opened.VERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE
A. The to-infinitive is used after the verbs in this group, without a preceding noun. The verbs marked * can also be followed by a 'that-clause'
VERB [/c]TO-INFINITIVE I hope
to see you next week. THAT- CLAUSE I hope
that I'll see you next week List of verbs normally followed by the infinitive
have (= be obliged)
prove (= turn out)
1 These verbs can only be followed by a 'that-clause' when they have the subject 'it'.
· It appeared that no-one had locked the door.
· He claimed to be an expert.
· I managed to reach the top of the hill.
· I know you're only pretending to love me!
· Don't pretend that you know the answer.
· She failed to explain the problem clearly.
· The customs man demanded to search our luggage.
· I can't afford to go out tonight.
VERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE
B. These are the most common of the verbs that are normally followed by a noun + infinitive. The verbs marked * may also be followed by a 'that-clause'.
VERB [/c]NOUN INFINITIVE He reminded me to buy some eggs. THAT-CLAUSE He remindedme that I had to buy some eggs.
leave (make someone responsible)
* command, direct, entreat, implore, order, require, trust:
there is no noun between these verbs and a 'that-clause':
· The general commanded his men to surrender.
· The general commanded that his men should surrender.
persuade and remind:
there is always a noun between these verbs and a 'that-clause':
· You can't persuade people to buy small cars.
· You can't persuade people that small cars are better.
instruct, teach, warn:
the noun is optional between these verbs and a 'that-clause':
· She taught her students to appreciate poetry.
· She taught her students that poetry was valuable.
· She taught that poetry was valuable.
· The professor challenged his students to argue with his theory.
· This law empowers the government to charge more taxes.
· You can't force me to do something I don't agree with.
· You are obliged to drive on the left in England.
· I invited the new student to have dinner with me.
· What inspired you to write this poem?
· The elephant told the mouse to climb up his tail.
VERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE
C. These are the most common of the verbs followed by a to-infinitive, with or without a noun.
· I asked him to show me the book.
· I asked to see the book.
wish* The verbs marked * can also be followed by a that-clause
dare: In negative and interrogative sentences the infinitive with or without 'to' is possible, though it is more common to omit the 'to':
· I never dared tell him what happened.
· Dare you tell him the news?
· Would you dare (to) jump out of a plane?
We've chosen John to represent the company at the conference.
· The driver didn't try to stop after the accident.
· We expect you to do your best in the exam.
· Do you want to go to the beach?
· Do you want me to go with you to the beach?
· You are requested to be quiet in this library.