Adana Modern Era
From the end of the Renaissance to the modern era (15171918), the Ottoman Empire ruled the area.
In the 1830s, in order to secure Egypt's independence for the Ottoman Empire, the army of Muhammad Ali Pasha, the viceroy of Egypt, invaded Syria on two occasions, and reached the Adana plain. The subsequent peace treaty secured Egypt's independence, but (at the insistence of Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) required the evacuation of all Egyptian forces from Syria, and its return to Ottoman sovereignty. In the aftermath, Adana was established as a province in its own right.
In 1909 Adana was the location of the Adana massacre. Turkish scholars and some others refer to the event as the Adana rebellion, based on a thesis of its underlying causes.
After World War I, the Ottoman government surrendered control of the city to French troops, and an Armenian troop equipped by French was sent to occupy the city. During the Turkish War of Independence, Adana was strategically important. Mustafa Kemal came to the city on October 31, 1918, and stayed there for eleven days. As a result, he decided to fight against the Allies, and the idea of Kuvayi Milliye was born.
Turkish nationalists fought against Allied forces, and on October 20, 1921, the Treaty of Ankara was signed between France and the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Based on the terms of the agreement, France signified the end of the Cilicia War; afterwards French invasion troops together with the Armenian volunteers withdrew from the city on January 5, 1922.
On 30 January 1943, Adana played host to Winston Churchill, determined to secure Turkey's entry into the Second World War on the side of the Allies, for a conference with the President İsmet İnönü (Adana Conference). The Turkish neutrality and İnönü's policy based on rationing concessions to both sides meant that the conference remained without substantial results.