Located on the eastern edge of the Çukurova plain in the foothills of the Nur Mountains, the gateway between Anatolia and the Middle East, Osmaniye is on the Silk Road, a place of strategic importance and has been a settlement for various civilizations including the Hittites, Persians, Kurds and Romans.
The Islamic presence in the area was first established by the Abbasid Caliph Harun Rashid, auxiliaries in his army being the first Turks to fight in Anatolia. They obviously took a shine to the place and following the Turkish victory over the Byzantines at Malazgirt in 1071 waves of Turkish conquest began. The Nur Mountains were settled by the Ulaşlı tribe of the Turkmens.
The Ulaşlı remained the local power through into the period of the Ottoman Empire and were even involved in the Celali uprisings, during a period of uncertain Ottoman rule in the 17th century. Eventually, in 1865 the Ottoman general Derviş Paşa was charged with bringing law and order to Çukurova. He established his headquarters in the Osmaniye village of Dereobası and brought the Ulaşlı down from the high mountains to the village of Hacıosmanlı. This eventually became the province of Osmaniye.